Without providing any substantial detail or legislative text, earlier this week the White House presented a one-page document titled “2017 Tax Reform for Economic Growth and American Jobs”.
Here are some items that may affect individual taxpayers.
Three brackets may replace the existing seven-bracket structure. The new brackets would be set at 10%, 25%, and 35%.
The existing standard deduction could be doubled. Under the existing structure, individuals can deduct $6,350 and married couples can deduct $12,700.
The plan would limit itemized deductions to mortgage interest and charitable contributions. A very popular deduction for State and Local Income Taxes would no longer be available (taxpayers residing in high-tax jurisdictions will feel the most impact).
Tax Relief for Families with Child and Dependent Care Expenses
No detail was provided as to how or if the existing dependent care tax credit and child tax credit will be modified.
Although Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said in his address Wednesday that the administration would like to move as fast as they can to pass the plan by year-end, the lack of transparency will lead to major congressional headwinds in the coming weeks and months.
For more information or questions, please contact Anatoli Pilchtchikov at 301.231.6200.
The Virginia General Assembly has enacted legislation requiring the Department of Taxation to adopt regulations consistent with recently issued guidance pertaining to the Local Business License Tax (BPOL) deduction for receipts attributable to other states. This development does not change the state of the applicable law, as the Virginia Supreme Court addressed the particular issue in 2015. However, having a regulation will hopefully give taxpayers clear guidance in a single source instead of having the rules spread out over a lengthy court decision, and multiple Department letter rulings. Additional background on the out-of-state deduction can be found here.
The legislation itself (HB 1961) is brief and to the point. It simply states that the Department must adopt regulations regarding the methodology for determining deductible gross receipts attributable to business conducted in another state consistent with the holding in The Nielsen Company v. County Board of Arlington County and rulings issued by the Department. Assuming the regulation will merely address the particular application of the out-of-state deduction at issue in Nielsen, taxpayers can expect the regulation to provide guidance on how to determine the allowable deduction when the BPOL tax base is computed using the payroll apportionment method.
Essentially, a taxpayer that uses payroll apportionment in initially computing its gross receipts attributable to the locality must be able to provide evidence that employees in the locality earn, or participate in earning, receipts attributable to customers in other states where the taxpayer filed an income tax return. If the taxpayer can provide such evidence, the taxpayer can claim a deduction from the tax base that is determined by multiplying the payroll factor percentage for the locality by the amount of gross receipts assigned to the states where the taxpayer filed an income tax return. Initially, this methodology was proposed and applied by the Department in a handful of rulings, and was affirmed as a reasonable approach by the court in the Nielsen ruling.
The more telling aspect of the developments on this issue is that they further support that the out-of-state deduction is not based on income tax apportionment rules. This is a common position taken by Virginia localities on audit or when deciding if a taxpayer is due a refund. Granted, the ability to claim the deduction is contingent upon a taxpayer filing an income tax return in the jurisdiction for which the deduction of the receipts is based. However, multiple Virginia rulings as well as the Nielsen decision make it clear that the amount of the deduction is not somehow tied to the amount of a taxpayer’s sales sourced to that state on its income tax returns. Indeed, such a requirement could result in similarly situated taxpayers ending up with different deduction amounts merely because the deduction is claimed with respect to states that have different sales factor sourcing rules for income tax purposes.
Whether a particular taxpayer has the ability to reduce their BPOL tax liability using the out-of-state deduction depends on how a taxpayer provides its services to its customers. Thus, the facts in each case become very important in assessing whether a taxpayer has been over reporting its BPOL tax. The best approach for any Virginia service provider is to seek out an experienced tax practitioner before filing that first BPOL tax return so the reporting is correct from the start. While refund claims can be great, the localities typically put up a fight even in the clearest cases. Taxpayers are typically required to provide extensive substantiation to support the claim. Still, many taxpayers overstate their BPOL tax base by such a large amount that the refund is substantial enough to endure dealing with a locality that is understandably reluctant to accept such a drastic change in the tax base without sufficient substantiation.
If you have concerns about whether your business is overpaying its BPOL tax, please contact your Aronson tax advisor or Michael L. Colavito, Jr. at 301.231.6200.
Register here for our upcoming webinar “Virginia Businesses: STOP Overpaying Local BPOL Tax”.
Massachusetts has joined the growing number of states that have implemented a sales tax collection obligation for out-of-state retailers. On April 3, 2017, the Massachusetts Department of Revenue issued a directive announcing that the Department is adopting an “administrative bright-line rule” for sales tax collection requirements for Internet vendors (Directive 17-1). Effective July 1, 2017, an Internet vendor with a principal place of business located outside of Massachusetts is required to collect the state’s sales tax if it had in excess of $500,000 in Massachusetts sales or 100 or more transactions with Massachusetts customers in the preceding 12 months.
On its face, the Directive appears to continue the trend of requiring remote sellers to collect sales tax merely due to a certain threshold of in-state sales being met. Besides Massachusetts, the most recent state to adopt a bright-line “economic nexus” standard for sales tax collection is Wyoming, where Gov. Matt Mead signed a bill establishing a sales tax collection threshold of $100,000 of annual sales or more than 200 sales to Wyoming customers. Similar rules have been passed in Alabama, South Dakota, and Tennessee, with the South Dakota rule likely headed to the state’s highest court.
However, Massachusetts’ strategy appears to be slightly different from the others states. Legislation passed in the other states require sales tax collection by retailers with no in-state physical presence, which is clearly at odds with the nexus standard established by the U.S. Supreme Court in the 1992 case of Quill Corporation v. North Dakota. The presumed strategy of the states enacting such provisions is to have the issue taken up by the courts in light of the failed attempts by Congress to address the issue through federal legislation.
Rather than attacking Quill head on, Massachusetts is attempting to distinguish what constitutes a physical presence for a mail order retailer as opposed to an Internet retailer. The ruling in Quill addressed the sales tax collection obligation of a mail order retailer, and concluded that the court’s bright-line “physical presence” standard was not met by a retailer whose only connection with customers in a taxing state is by common carrier or the United States mail. The Massachusetts Directive reasons that the business activities of Internet retailers are factually distinguishable from the business of mail order retailers because Internet retailers do not limit their contacts with the state to mail and common carriers. The directive concludes that Internet retailers have a physical presence in Massachusetts because (1) retailer-owned software is affirmatively downloaded through the use of “native” or “mobile” apps or downloaded by a customer’s general use of the retailer’s website; and (2) retailer-owner proprietary cookies are placed on their customers’ computers and devices.
The troubling nature of the Directive is it seems to ignore that the Quill decision concluded that a sufficient physical presence was not established through mailings made into the state that were owned by the retailers. The in-state mailings did establish some existence of a physical presence for the mail order retailer, but it was not sufficient in the eyes of the Court. Any software and cookies that are downloaded by an in-state customer seemingly serve the same purpose as a mailed catalog. The analogous nature of mailed catalogs and downloaded software arguably should result in the same non-sufficient physical presence as concluded in Quill. Whether online retailers abide by this directive is yet to be seen. If the developments in other states are any indication, the issue of remote seller sales tax collection could very well be litigated in Massachusetts in the near future. It seems that it is only a matter of time before the U.S. Supreme Court will be forced to address the issue again.
If you have any questions regarding your sales tax collection obligations, please contact your Aronson tax advisor or Michael L. Colavito, Jr. at 301.231.6200.